This is the fourth post of GDSN #2 review, if you haven't read our previous reviews it is a good time to check out the great talks!
Ulf Barth - C-UAS against Swarms
Okay. So, ladies and gentlemen, my name is Barth, and I welcome you to my presentation. Okay, challenges in combating Hughey ID and issues SUV swamps, and civil and military environments. Let me say a little bit to my personal background. In addition to my civilian work as a freelance in information technology, I've also learned a lot about security in the real world as a staff officer in the German Armed Forces reserve. This includes stations in the tanks for kindness and object protection, which in Germany means primarily the protection of its own infrastructure. I have been dealing with threats posed by SUVs since my work for the cyber innovation hub in 2007. Teen in the cyber–Innovation Hub is an institution of the German Armed Forces that promotes the work between with start-ups and dual use commercial off the shelf products. Just since the beginning of President segment, this presentation reflects the opinion of the outcome that's me and does not necessarily represent the position of the German Armed Forces or the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the abundance of material, I will only briefly touch on many topics. For further question please do not hesitate to contact me. In principle This presentation is based on publicly available sources. Use terms SUV small, unmanned aerial vehicle isn't small enough to be men portable. The size is not exactly defined internationally, and currently ranges between maybe two kilogram and 25 kilograms However, these values are flexible both upwards and downwards. And you add it is short term for Unmanned Aerial improvised explosive device is a subset of SUV and describes a drone converted versus simplest of mean for terrorist purposes.
There has been in the last three years there have been a number of notable incidents, most of which have taken place in the Middle East and some of them in Ukraine. The Islamic State in particular as distinguished itself here, the Islamic State force without its own Air Force and without sufficient resources to develop something new in the field of area warfare.
I'm just image crossed by the drone strike in Saudi Arabia 2019. As you see on the left, picture, about 17 impacts for counted on the aerial photograph. Since ever surviving drones this form will have been larger. The picture on the left shows the affected regions. The picture on the right shows the damage to individual installations you see here, here and in the background. Of course, it's always difficult to judge something like this from a distance. But the impact looked planned from the distribution and seems to be very exact. So, let's have let's have a look on to the technology. That's a remote analysis of the drone, because I have not been to Saudi Arabia until now. But on the first look, there is technology for modelmaking that this technology is used as a use about 30 years ago, much of the construction was done with glass fibre reinforced plastic. That is the materials that you can get very easy, it's very cheap. And it seems to be from this point of view, that C SUV was not using any camera sensor. I think that was a GPS guided missile, or drone. I think the estimated material costs has been under $3,000 per unit. Okay, if you have a look on the right picture. It's not so good to see but engine and propeller as commercial off the shelf. I think they were buying this thing somewhere in some kind of model shop.
Just difference between the left plane and the right plane, the right plane, ACC more professional, say using painting forms are looking much better. And if you see on the other side, is it's a very crude building, and they use a lot of duct tape to replace glue. As you see, these stones are very small. So, it could easily be that this has been launched from a small ship. And it's absolutely, absolutely now there's absolutely no problem to build this in the garage and if I would say which difficulty level, I think someone from the age of 14 to up to 99 could melt this.
Now Let's have a look on it the brain off the dawn it is not said that it was exactly this outro payload, but this is just an example for us. And you can this is for quadcopter drawn and these components if across around 100 were stellar and resist you have a complete flight control system with auto payload with GPS with telemetry radio. And in this case with power distribution board, I was it could be to any kind of yabo so what the interesting thing is, you see on the see how small these things are. And the other thing is these flight from a process of not only works for critical copter drone but can also be easily adapted for starving drone as used during the attack in Saudi Arabia. And these components are mass products. It's absolutely no problem to buy 50 units of some in another country. Put them into the hand luggage, space would be enough and back to home. You have an extra Yes, the control system for 50 cruise missiles was round about one meter precision. And that is amazing technology. And I can make this cruise missile in a garage. And that's what's the quality looks like. So, for this part, we start with some conclusions. The first conclusion is it's not only developed countries that can build cruise missiles with a range of more than 100-kilometre ambitious individuals can do so today. The United States Air Force pays about $800,000 for a BGM 109 Tomahawk a private individual pays for itself built Christmas round about the $3,000. Okay, less range less payload with the same precision. And as you can see, with soft targets the amount of explosive is not crucial. Okay, given its size that drone can be launched from any location that make makes it very difficult for police or army to detect the launching site. The launch can be done from the hand with a small cut-out port or cable winch, for example. There are things that are very easy to get. And the next thing is all previous concepts for a space defence are facing major problems. You've seen this in Saudi Arabia. There's information that at this site has been patriot defence system. And these systems were not able to fight against the size of a drone. And the other thing is it is reasonable to fight. Is it reasonable to fight a $3,000 Huey ID with a $1 million Patriot missile? And what does the defence system do? If 100 is up arrive? For that you must know that a patriot battery can actually only find fight against nine targets at the same time.
Okay. incidents involving drones, of course not limited to the Middle East such incidents or the Q in Germany fortunately, so far without any damage to persons. This example is worse a drone lands at the feet of john chinchilla, Dr. Macker in 2013. during an election campaign event, there's a video about it on YouTube make sense in how in my honest opinion. The bodyguards reacted completely wrong, but I'm sure they learn from this. And the next time we will handle it in another way. In 2019, there was Frankfurt Airport, had an intern truck flight operation for one hour, which was very expensive, only was some fool was flying some kind of drone at defence off the airport area. But I think we heard this in previous presentations. john f traffic control reports about 158 incidents involving drones only in the air traffic in 2018.
So small drones are dual use potential soft civilian targets, like stadium airports, demonstrations, or chemical plants or a lot of other things. We have a technology civilization but or the military from my point of view, this is a bad example because no one is that's in Afghanistan, but no one is looking for any planes or drones or something. It's very open.
Weaponized drones already existing prototypes or actually use small mini drones that can be used against soft targets using the role of bomber reconnaissance vehicle, sniper, anti-tank rocket launcher, flame thrower Are you at this only small selection and new variations are created daily. Okay, this is a bomber drone from Islamic State. These two drones were part of a swarm of about 15 drones set a tech the Russian Abbey's it, Syrian on my sorry for the watch in January 2018. These drones, these drones were probably forced to learn by electronic countermeasures. Please note the use of conventional mortar ammunition as bombs. And here sea opener. And as you see people using an awful lot of tech tape to make this drone operational. And as you see this design was based on model planes.
There are multicopper bombers from the Islamic State. The first picture based on is a drone based on a DJI Matrice 100 quadcopter you see is yet to improvise bombs. And at the end, you see right at the end, you see very improvised the Batman tales to stabilize the flight of the small bump. The other thing is a more self-built drone. Very improvised. And you see it was a warhead, I think that is from RPG seven that is an anti-tank rocket. And but I think it will work too. If you fly in one meter, the height of one meter and it fall down to zero that is a reconnaissance drone from the Islamic State to as they were in the construction it seems to be more careful because it's not only for throwaway use it's for reusing and I think this technology is not Rosa then from other countries was develop military industry that is one of drones that is built in Israel. That is the teacup sniper drone that is more professional, not improvised. But it shows in which direction some kind of development is going here's the rifle this on a gimbal mounted with a sniper rifle and this drone is capable of stabilized shooting during flight If you're looking on YouTube for the videos you can see it.
Here we are coming more to the improvised drones This example shows very typically how civil technology is married to military technology with simply means the 250-meter range of the RPG 26 that is a small anti-tank missile from Russian production. Here you see the left and the smaller left photo use small rocket that is true. And as you see this drone is king to awesome and this weapon is able to penetrate foreigner 40 millimetre wrote homage gayness armour that is taking the technical value for the sickness of tank armour or just able to penetrate which may be a bit honest and one-meter reinforced concrete gets all manufacturer data. And the RPG 26 was exported to many countries and is also used in estimate conflicts. So, it's not only easy to build this in billows it's easy to work this worldwide. This is known as an example that is a this is a civilian Chinese drone equipped with a flame thrower to as you can see, clear high voltage power lines of biological waste. The problem is this technology could already be relatively easily misused or copied for terrorist purposes. Okay, here we are having a professional product. This is a slightly larger drone from the military sector it has a three-kilogram board and can be transported at 130 kilometres per off about 60 kilometres. The drone has a wingspan of 120 centimetre that is not so much 93 centimetre long and 16-centimetre heart so this stone can be easily transported with a midsize station wagon. And with such small arms, there's always the risk that these weapons fall into the wrong hands when exported. And I think it's every military equipment it's normally easy to handle. payload the payload of a drone is difficult to estimate and very dependent on the construction message and submission profile. For example, 275-kilogram heavy duty drone GIF three or not from Norway can carry up to 225-kilogram payload. That's approximately three times its own way. Smaller DJI Inspire from the official data can official 3.5-kilogram take-off weight and 9.8-kilogram payload. So that's about 20% of the maximum total rate. But I'm sure that there are still a lot of resolve with the risk of losing mobility. So, the other thing is, if you want longer, if you want to fly over a longer distance, you have less payload.
So, I think that a good reference for could be a ratio of two to one reverse KC now, I would assume a ratio of chavvy to payload of one two to one should never underestimate that a great deal can be achieved in this era even versus simple resources. So, try understanding what payload means. Okay, even one kilogram payload can cause severe damage to soft targets. If it is explosive 1000-gram risk crossbencher person 86 cent grenades biological warfare agents, easy and tax can be distributed over large areas by drone chemical warfare agents for example, for x Lisa rows, approximate five microgram per kilogram life fate said costs 1 million deaths theoretical 1 million deaths per kilogram for x theoretical dirty bomb nuclear waste plus Safia seafield, CFO, Chief electrical what happens on a full stadium and a drone is distributing white powder. Maybe there are some Hispanic well, as shown the flame straw is horrifying as it's okay, procurement of drones. The problem is, it's really a problem. From a point of view of the security organizations, it's all available, you can get a complete drone off the rack commercial so chef Amazon Alibaba a lot of other sources, you can get the flying scaffold, you can use a 3d printer, you can visit from baser what carbon fibre composite, you can get it from Amazon Alibaba, same two components. Flight Control, you have seen pixel four with GPS position control for 40 euro there are some examples and proof of concepts. And that is the future is that people used smartphone as flight control a smartphone, higher class smartphone, it's normally the same sensors as the flight control for a drone. So, it's not a big problem. There's some proof of concept of this. And the other thing is in the meantime, you can buy professional additions to the flight controller to use 5g or 4g carts. So, software, drone code, for example is open source, you can change all you want. But you can use it on change too and have a full system for many drone templates. proliferation is awesome problem as a problem. In the sense of proliferation, proliferation in the sense of small arms to terrorists by state actors said happens in the past and it will happen in the future too. Okay. The control of drones can be done with different methods.
I have identified five types. classic model aeroplane, or drones that are still controlled by humans, with or without camera. Autonomous drones controlled by GPS like the drones in Saudi Arabia. Autonomous drones controlled by national navigation in case GPS kills. Drones controlled by artificial intelligent, usually by an image recognition system. All these Types already exists. Also, type four and five are not yet very common. Please note that the type three and five are without active radiations and therefore all passive radio signals will not work. Type four and five will also be very resistant to ECM measures. Remote Control wrenches very interesting thing in the past the classic model airplanes were not a big threat on this short range of the Trent's meter and the fixed position of the own on the Korean ground made it not worse. Therefore, this has changed with type two FP fowl drones, FP fall for first person view his radio stations have a range of between one and 50 kilometres even assist is not permitted in all countries. Game Changer here see if the ability of 4g or 5g networks This makes a range of the control system virtually unlimited. A jam company was able to successfully demonstrate a remote control from 8000 kilometres for terrorists This means they can place the drone somewhere in the forest leave the country and launch the tech from a distance defends our interests against thrown Okay, detect identify tracking, fighting, detection, radar, camera noise detection, radio direction finding infrared all the things you know identification you can identify the noise, signature, image recognition, frequency signature radio signature persecution, Rado cover motion image recognition, noise detection and so on different possibilities to fight against counter you we don't electronic countermeasures, EMP small arms air defence systems passive measures example NetFlow I show later laser but not everything is suitable for use in urban environments. Please be aware of the current collateral damage that happens if you use some of this mirrors okay problems of individual defensive measures let us look at the defence medicine extracts a civil airport ECM not really safe an aircraft or friendly UV signs. EMP eliminates any danger of drones because it's makes from the mix electronic barbecue by burning out electronics. But even more civilian aircraft are not allowed to be adequately secured. Small Arms normally too short to short range to protect a large area defence systems deployment against drones flying at a height of only two meter that can cause major collateral damage. Normally, air defence systems are built to fight against planes that are flying maybe higher than 100 meter or 50 meters if you're fighting against helicopters, but if you're flying to meter you can be sure said yeah ammunition is going into the next forest for example and you have the next forest fire and laser same problem is the laser Do not hit the drone. It started forest fires laser, or you harm any people.
Of course, these are all just individual arguments. For example, the use of lasers on board of ships against drones can be useful to determine defence measures for a given location or circumstances must be taken into account. But the drones can do countermeasures. speed. Today heavy motor business can be drawn to the speed up to 750 kilometres per hour. This is about 200 meters per second or one kilometre and five second. That's really the worst case for a defence system. It's a this is a remote-control type one aircraft this jet turbine was this commercial said planes model plane flies for seven or 44 kilometres per hour. Test so weighs 7.5 kilogram and uses aviation gasoline turban to jet turban costs about 2500 euro that's about 2000 a wrestler. If you modified SAS such type with the GPS module of type, so that is type three drone, it could theoretically fly 200 kilometres in about 15 minutes, it hits a target visit accuracy of about 10 meters. But don't be too worried to build such a plane. And to fly such a plane you need a lot of experience that most of the people does not have use of the terrain. Due to the amount of varying moving capabilities, multi copters thrones in particular can execute the tech profiles close to the ground. And that means lower than two meters. There are many videos on YouTube where you can look for FBX file, drones and what they are doing, and you will be astonished what they can do. And as a result. It's very, very difficult for the detection by radar image recognition for a very long time during the protrace because it's behind the house or behind. Or something like lit like said emission control. Already today's commercial off the shelf drones that can fly a pre-programmed GPS pass as a type three drone without any radio emission. No problem. camo flash painted or life or painted grey or something like that. Very easy. That's maybe a problem for image recognition. What's the next 3d a problem? And the first photo you see Bert was a mutation of a bird and the other pictures famous flying cat. And I think it would be a very interesting try to see if artificial intelligence system that is trained to identify drones is able to identify this is a drone.
Okay, nice mini mission that was in one of the other presentation tools. Yes, there are some possibilities. And I think there will be pressure on the manufacturers of drones to develop a lot of noise reduction reducing measures because a lot of people want to use drones in an environment like Amazon like Amazon and the people are very unlikely precede the sound of the drones. So, there will be a lot of pressure to develop technologies to make it much more silent. EMP protection EMP is fun challenge if you're having if you're outside of urban area It's maybe a possibility as a ship defence if you're sure that this nobody was electronic. By the normal commercial off the shelf prawns are not protected against EMP.
But it's analogous to the way military equipment is already protected against EMP today. But EMP protective drones will, in my honest opinion, primarily come from state sources through proliferation to terrorists. Because for good working, EMP protection, you need a good engineer or a very good engineer. And you need a very good test facility.
Tech for swarms of drones can be used to perform an overload attacks attack against the target. I will show later something to this. But the very important thing is, it is possible that a single person is going to several electronic markets buying drones maybe 20 or 30. Is programming. The GPS pass springs them to a roof with a timer going somewhere else. And then the two or 30 autonomous GPS drones are starting and targeting their aim. Status technical, technical possible. The other thing is that's more the military side. From a tech for swarms. First point is the user’s user trust the terrain is also a challenge for deception attempts combined with the high stress to weight ratio and the ability of multicopters to have a system equals unconventional attack direction and try it for victories, especially in urban turn. So, all around, all round defences are required. But the most challenging factor of swamps cinema, just an example. Most SUVs have a top speed of 50 to 150 kilometres per hour, assuming a detection range of three kilometre in typical landscape in urban turn to see tection Prange is probably much lower. The timeframe for interception is between 72 and 216 seconds. Auntie Teresa Sims for example can only find one target program at a time. And so, if you have as humans are required to original five seconds to detect ruggedness aim and shoot down one target combined with you mentioned timeframe, this means that a swarm of 15 or 44 SUVs depending on the speed, range and so on is able to welcome to a system overloaded and eliminated with a hit. This calculation neglects potential evading manoeuvres of the drones answer users of terrain as a cover and classical missile air defence system systems especially patriot can only engage limited them off ACV in parallel Furthermore, it does not make economic sense destroy a $3,000 drone versus a $1 million Mr. Okay. I see I'm a little bit late I will go a little bit faster. Electronic customer service control frequencies.
Switching to control by 4g and 5g module on board positron you see 5g, 4g 5g can be disrupted business lets massive collateral damage to the digital infrastructure. And it's currently impossible to identify the drone in a 4g 5g network, because you cannot see if it's if it is a smartphone, or a drone. Normally a drone with a return homeless or radio connection is lost. However, the autopilot can also be programmed to take full control until the drone has reached its destination. That's something to GPS interference that's from Israeli start-ups is able to protect against GPS spoofing. Well, it seems safe a lot of experience with this. Okay, prediction of stationary installations. Just on the fly some ideas how you can use all technology to protect a stationary installation. You can use elevated camouflage nets in the camp area.
As Seen On the photos, it's in Berlin, at Vandenberg gate in 90 140. You can predict it protected additionally with, for example, with Kevlar fabric to make a protection against explosions. There's a possibility for vertical spreads with folks in the airspace of the protected area. So, 30 drones have to fly very deep. You can make vertical nets and round up off the camp. So that deep flying drones have you fly in transit or have to go up to go into the defence area. And that's used by many armies yes from the German army. Using a smoke grenade launcher. If it's Formosa attacking, and intrudes the camp. Then you have the possibility of tourists specially to fight against artificial intelligence drones. Come on. And it makes it much more difficult to find the target sits about active protection against small drones. Some thoughts? I would go over it, you can read it in the presentation. Okay. Okay. One word to protection through geo fencing. Actually, it is a good idea for commercial drones to have information about no-fly zones, and to take them into account if possible. However, it does not guarantee that all protected areas are covered. From my own experience in Bowden. I know that this is not the case. And homebuilt drones do not have grave geo fencing, so they don't take no fly zones into account. So, kill fencing is something for the good people who possibly make mistakes, but not for the bad people who can ignore it. Okay, summary, the possibility of interfering with drones even in the UAE is this is decreasing, it's getting more difficult. The precision of a UAIED drone attack can be very high, smaller one meter. Terrorist is able to build proceeds one-to-10-kilogram UAIED there's a range of 10 kilometres plus in the garage Terrorists do not need to be on site. that meets makes it much easier for the terrorists. All components and software except detonators and explosives are freely available and can be obtained in constituency. Even terrorists can handle swarms outlook for the future and with this I'm coming to the end for the future tried and tested concept must be reconsidered and adapted to the new circumstances. I would like to illustrate this was to selected examples from the military sector. drones and danger armoured vehicles and swarm of drones in danger. Yeah, defence the first picture shows the almost complete loss of a battle tank in Iraq. The emissions from a drone view of the Islamic State the drone is just manually directed an explosive device the grenade almost fell through the open match of the command and almost exploded inside the tank. It has been an AI if it if this had been an AI control drone, the precision would have been even higher.
I'm just switching to the video okay. See a scene that was very process. So, the second picture is showing the weak points on every modern main battle tank. No matter which nations optics I have outlined in red and artificial drone program for these features will in future target and destroy these points with absolute precision. This was put a main battle tank out of action for a long time. Because it's not so easy to exchange the optics these capabilities do not only concern the army bodyguards will also have to consider them in the future. an AI drone can just as well autonomously approach the weak points of an AR much civil Rico. And it's shown a drone is much more proceed as when you are firing for example RPGs seven antitank Messiah to a car.
The other thing is swarm of drones and danger elephants. And here's another example from international drones such where the dual use characters of drones can be seen quite well. China is not the only country doing research in this direction. But China seems to have realized earlier than other swarms of SUVs or game changers that you found the video and forced my last page and two videos about three minutes and then we're through with the presentation. As you can see here. This is the experiments from a university in China in the year 2016. with very small drones that are acting as a swarm and that is very advanced technologies the drones are talking together. They are not communicating merci cron station and I think that is very impressive. What the guy said she knows mate. Yeah. That is something that I think I think that terrorists are not able to do at the moment. Because they have not the time, they have not the test area safe, not the maybe they have not the money, maybe.
But I think time and time is the most important things. And this clip shows at the end that this is maybe in part, military project too. Because they show at the end, see target often attack with such a swarm is an air defence system. And to me too nice, nice animation for this.
And as you see here, how is this what happened? On this makes it in future. Very difficult to protect against this. And we must be aware that there's no proliferation of this weapons. For example, for terrorists. Well, that's another problem too. So, any questions?